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Body Fat Percentage and Body Fat Mass
Body Fat Percentage is the proportion of fat to the total body weight. Body Fat Mass is the actual weight of fat in your body.
Body fat is essential for maintaining body temperature, cushioning joints and protecting internal organs. The energy (calories) the body needs comes from what a person consumes through eating and drinking. Energy is burned through physical activity and general bodily functions such as breathing and digesting food. If a person consumes the same number of calories as they burn all these calories are converted into energy. But if they consume more calories than they burn, the excess calories are stored in the body's fat cells. If this is not converted into energy later, it creates excess body fat under the skin (subcutaneously) or around the organs in the abdominal area (visceral fat). Too much fat has been proven to seriously affect long-term health while reducing excess levels of body fat can directly reduce the risk of certain conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Too little body fat may lead to osteoporosis in later years, irregular periods in women and possible infertility. It is important to check your clients' body fat results against the Tanita healthy body fat ranges. These measurements are available for everyone from age five to 99 years. If you are including fat loss as part of a weight loss programme for a client, we recommend setting a target of a 1% - 2% loss for an adult per month. Use the goal setter mode if you want to set new targets for a client and demonstrate their progress. For adult's healthy body fat ranges click here Children need to gain weight as their bones and muscles grow. They also need fat reserves in the right proportion. For our children's healthy body fat ranges click here Tanita has teamed up with the charity Weight Concern LINK TO WEIGHT CONCERN WEBSITE to produce a guide LINK TO BOOKLET that includes advice on talking to children about their weight as well as tips on how to lead a healthy lifestyle.
Visceral fat is located deep in the core abdominal area, surrounding and protecting the vital organs.
Even if an adult's weight and body fat remains constant, the distribution of fat naturally changes with age and is more likely to shift to the abdominal area as they get older. Ensuring a healthy level of visceral fat directly reduces the risk of certain diseases such as heart disease and high blood pressure and may delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Rating from 1 to 12 Indicates a healthy level of visceral fat. Continue monitoring your client's rating to ensure it stays within the healthy range. Rating from 13 - 59 Indicates an excess level of visceral fat. If a client's measurement falls within this range, take action by recommending changes to their nutrition plan and by steadily increasing the amount and intensity of exercise they do.
The predicted weight of muscle in your body.
Muscle mass includes the skeletal muscles, smooth muscles such as cardiac and digestive muscles and the water contained within these muscles. Muscles act as an engine in consuming energy. As muscle mass increases, the rate at which the body burns energy (calories) also increases. This naturally accelerates a person's Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) - the daily minimum level of energy the body requires to function effectively - which helps to reduce excess body fat levels and results in healthy weight loss over time. If you are recommending increased exercise as part of a client's health or fitness programme, remember that muscle mass will increase and may increase total body weight too. It is important to point this out to clients so they can see the true impact of training on their muscle mass. Having a healthy proportion of muscle mass is also important for children. Tanita has created the world's first healthy muscle mass centiles for children. LINK TO KIDS MUSCLE MASS CHARTS
Fat Free Mass
Total body weight excluding body fat mass
Fat Free Mass includes everything from skin, bones, ligaments and tendons, to organs and water content. A high level of fat free mass generally implies a lean and healthy body frame.
Total Body Water
Total Body Water is the total amount of fluid in the body expressed as a percentage of total weight.
Water is an essential part of staying healthy. Over half the body consists of water. It regulates body temperature and helps eliminate waste. Water is continuously lost through urine, sweat and breathing so it's important to drink regularly throughout each day to maintain adequate hydration levels. The amount of fluid needed every day varies from person to person and is also affected by climatic conditions and how much physical activity they undertake. Experts recommend drinking at least two litres of fluid each day, preferably water or other low calorie drinks. Being well hydrated helps concentration levels, sports performance and general wellbeing. It's important to regularly monitor your clients' hydration levels. If a client is training regularly, you should recommend that they increase their fluid intake accordingly to ensure peak performance at all times. Make sure your clients are within the healthy TBW% ranges: Female 45 to 60% Male 50 to 65%
Intra Cellular Water (ICW)
The fluid present inside cells
Two thirds of the Total Body Water (TBW) in an average healthy person will consist of Intra Cellular Water.
Extra Cellular Water (ECW)
The fluid present outside the body
Two thirds of the Total Body Water (TBW) in an average healthy person will consist of Intra Cellular Water.
Shows the relationship between Extra Cellular Water as a proportion of Total Body Water and is a general indicator of hydration and health
The standard range of ECW/TBW is between 0.36 and 0.42. An average healthy person may have a reading of 0.38. Any score over 0.42 may be considered as an indicator of water retention. Any score below 0.36 may indicate increased levels of dehydration. TBW, ECW, and ICW can reveal dehydration and water retention and/or progress in trying to treat these symptoms. Fluid changes usually occur first in ECW. For example in the case of dehydration, the ICW measurement only begins to decrease after there has been significant depletion of ECW.
The predicted weight of bone mineral in your body.
While bone mass in an adult is unlikely to undergo noticeable changes in the short term, maintaining healthy bones through a combination of a balanced diet rich in calcium and plenty of weight-bearing exercise is crucial. You should track clients' bone mass measurements over time and check for any long-term changes.
Assesses muscle and body fat levels and rates the result as one of nine body types.
As a person's activity level changes, the balance of body fat and muscle mass will gradually alter, which in turn will affect their overall physique. Together with your client, you can set a physique rating body type as a target and work towards this goal. As they follow their programme and get closer to their target, this will help increase your client's motivation as they see the results of their training and healthy eating.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
The daily minimum level of energy or calories your body requires when at rest (including sleeping) in order to function effectively.
About 70% of calories consumed each day are used for the body's basal metabolism. Increasing muscle mass helps raise the body's BMR, which increases the number of calories burned and helps to decrease body fat levels. It's important to explain to clients that the more active they are, the more calories they will burn - even when at rest. BMR measurements can be used as a minimum baseline for developing a personalised nutrition programme that can include additional calories depending on a client's activity level. A person with a high BMR burns more calories at rest than a person with a low BMR. As people age their metabolic rate changes. Basal metabolism rises as a child matures and peaks at around 16 or 17, after which point it typically starts to decrease. A slow BMR makes it harder to lose body fat and overall weight.
Compares your BMR to an average for your age group.
Metabolic age is calculated by comparing an individual's Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) to the BMR average of their chronological age group. If a client's metabolic age is higher than their actual age, it is a clear indicator of the need to improve their metabolic rate. Increased exercise builds healthy muscle tissue, which in turn will improve metabolic age.
Segmental Muscle Mass
Muscle mass rating for five body segments: the core abdominal area and arm and leg.
Monitoring a client's muscle mass in these five specific areas - the core abdominal area and each of the arms and legs - will help you both to see the impact of your client's training programme over time. This information can also be used to help correct muscle imbalances and avoid injury.
Segmental Body Fat Percentages
Body fat percentages for five body segments: the core abdominal area and each arm and leg.
Monitoring a clients body fat percentage in these five specific areas
Body Mass Index
A standardised ratio of weight to height, used as a general indicator of health.
BMI can be calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meters). BMI is a good general indicator for population studies but has significant limitations when assessing on an individual level.
Leg muscle score
An indicator of overall physical condition
A leg muscle score is a general indicator overall physical condition. It is based on leg muscle mass divided by body weight and then plotted against average healthy values for gender and age. Leg muscle represents the largest fraction of muscle mass in the body and so comparisons of leg muscle give a good prediction of overall muscle mass. An ideal result should be one that is plotted on or above the line. Any score below the line indicates that increased exercise is required. Muscle mass naturally depletes with age and it is particularly important to maintain a good level of leg muscle to reduce the risk of falls and loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in old age.
Muscle Mass Balance
Measures the balance of muscle mass in the left and right side of the body
It is natural to have slightly more muscle in one arm or leg than the other. For example if a person is right handed they will have more muscle in the right arm. A muscle mass balance measurement can be used to help with a post-injury rehabilitation and recovery programme. An injury in a client
Derived from a person
Higher phase angle measurements appear to be consistent with large quantities of intact cell membranes, good nutritional status and good general health. Low phase angles may indicate extreme physical exhaustion - typical in athletes who have undergone extreme sport tours, malnutrition, chronic infection or disease, an unhealthy lifestyle or very old age (80-100 years). A phase angle of six or more is usually preferred for men and five or more for women. Fit adolescents may have a phase angle greater than 10. A persons phase angle measurement naturally decreases with age.
Assessment of appendicular muscle mass in association to height
Based on the calculation of segmental muscle mass in each arm and leg, divided by an individual’s height squared. If the measurement falls below the recommended cut-off points, it indicates the person has particularly low muscle mass and a higher risk of sarcopenia. Can be used to identify, prevent and monitor elderly clients.